The inventions of Sindh, Dishonestly Claimed by other Nations

By Asif Raza Morio

Buddhist Stupa View, Mohenjo Daro
Buddhist Stupa View, Mohenjo Daro

Indus valley civilization is the most elegant among her contemporary societies of the world such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, China etc: around past five thousand years, at whatever expertise these cultures are compared. As this was nonviolent land of friendly people, consequently travelers, explorers, voyages, sailors and merchants had been felt tranquility of social life.

Exploratory diggings of Indus sites specially its capital city Mohenjo Daro (the mound before River Indus) clearly reveals the excavators that living of its residents were scientifically prosperous, god planners regarding architecture and construction, more over they have been best scientists, sculptures, adventurers, pioneers, amusers, jewelers, priests, pottery makers, hunters, fighters, worriers, agriculturists so on and so forth.

Scores of historians and writers quoted Indus people, civilization and cities as mysterious, no doubt we are still dealing with the tips of iceberg regarding the interpretation of script only whereas to name rest of all the things strange is bogus air of mystery, therefore this would not be justice to label such well of civilization as baffling one whereas each object founded from here is explaining about its artistic origin plainly.

This is not an assumption but a fact what can be proved by seen the said artifacts founded from the ruins of Indus cities, displayed in the museums. It is also truth that such inventive thoughts of Sindhi creators, spread around in the form of designs and objects where ever possible and inspired the ingenious minds to follow and continue the chain of attainments. In this scenario it can be said that creativeness of Sindhi people have been lions share regarding evolutionary development of human race in the course of times.

This little piece of writing will make clear those inhabitants of this land were scientifically advance in various fields and technologies before the advent of history. They used to live in spacious, planned and well built houses when almost whole Europe was fogged into social and cultural illiteracy.

The remains of Indus cities and objects founded from excavations proved their owners as scientific, social and sensible. They conquered many horizons of infinite development of human being to facilitate their life towards easiness and luxury.

Lets for instance, proving my statement, discussing about few unique Indus inventions and their concepts, many among those crafts, models and ideas are still practiced in specially Asia and generally rest of the world.

First of all taking an example from world’s most popular game Chess (played by an estimated 605 million people), so called a “Royal game” by Europeans. Researchers had the thought that not only the aspects of art and science are found in theory and composition of chess but way of gaming is also considered the method of enhancing mental strength.

The game is played on a square chessboard, at the start, each player (“white” and “black”) controls sixteen pieces, one king, one queen, two rocks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Objective of the game is to checkmate the opponent’s king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in “check”) and there is no way to take it out from attack on the next move.

English and few other nations by claim of the invention concerning Chess around few hundred years back into their world famous authenticated publications, for example as per Encyclopedia Wikipedia “current form of the Chess emerged in Southern Europe in the second half of the 15th century”. This statement is wide of mark for Chess is five thousand year old and original product and invention of Sindhi people because its complete form has been found from excavations of Mohenjo Daro (capital city of Indus valley civilization in Larkana District of Sindh Province of Pakistan) and is kept for display in its site Museum.

It has an other Indian origin name Shitranj, since the Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Greek, Portuguese and Spanish words for chess are derived from the ancient Indian word Chaturanga, i.e. four divisions of the military, infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots. Only India throughout the history of war world had in its cavalry all three animals – elephant, camel and horse – represented by the rock, bishop and knight.

Taking brainwave from the core concept of Chess, an other game of “Playing Cards” was founded, having same pattern, theory etc. Only the difference between chess and cards is the gaming pattern, one is playing on board other with cards. As the said period did not have printing availability thus the cards might had been engraved or embossed forms of making, like the metallic and stone seals or inscriptive plates of Mohenjo Daro. Moreover the cards might had been made on wooden plates, skin or if pro assume on paper this will again enhance the discussion for paper as invention of Indus people.

Despite the fact that search and research require to verify my statement, however the wood, skin, paper type of things must had been used for cards manufacturing but as such perishable material can not exist to tell their tale into salty grounds of Sindh for thousands years, but this is crystal clear that which nation invented the chess she should genuinely be the creator of playing cards.

Inventions of the Dice (Loodo in Greek and Chakko in Sindhi language) has been claimed by Greeks, that’s why it is called Loodo reveals meaning as “come play”. Greeks verdict regarding rights of dice is also wrong because comprehensive form of dice has been found from Mohenjo Daro having same outward appearance like modern one. Time comparison as regards Greek and Sindh make us known that former is more than thousand year younger to later one, Indus people had dice five thousand years ago whereas Greek history at that time was blank around centuries.

Dice is actually Sindhi original pastime because the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a 5000 year old back from archaeological site of Mohenjo Daro and then at the archaeological site of Burnt in south eastern Iran. To strengthen its Indus origin I mentioned few examples of ancient script of South Asia, because the Dicing has been mentioned in Rig Veda and Atharva Veda. It is also mentioned in Buddha’s games list, great Hindu epic the Mahabharta where Yudhisthira plays a game of dice against the Kauravas for the northern kingdom of Hastinpura.

Moreover Indus people evolved many new techniques in metallurgy; they produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. Their engineering skills were remarkable, especially in building docks after a careful study of tides, waves and currents. A touch stone bearing gold strips was found from here probably used for testing the purity of gold; such techniques are still prevailing in many countries of the world along with sub continent.

Many crafts such as shell working, ceramics, agate, and glazed steatite bead making were used in the manufacture of necklaces, bangles, beads and other ornaments from all phases of Indus sites. Several make-up and toiletry items, a special kind of comb and a three-in-one toiletry implement are also founded. Terracotta female figurines having red color applied to the middle head line appeared as a result of hair partition, the ritual tradition can still be seen in India which is called “maang” and considered to be the symbol of married women.

Seals have been found in Mohenjo Daro depicting a figure stand on its head, an other sitting cross-legged in a yoga like pose pinched our attention that yoga is much ancient than is considered its start from Buddha period. Some Indus valley seals show swastika which can be found among many religions and mythologies of the time, same swastika was also symbol of German dictator Adolph Hitler. A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects indicate the use of stringed musical instrument. An other instrument is also found which was used to measure whole sections of the horizon and the tidal dock.

They achieved great accuracy and preciseness in measuring length, mass and time. The minimum division marked on an ivory scale is approximately 1.704 mm, it is the smallest distribution ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. Indus engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights. Cubical, truncated spherical, barrel shaped weights in graduated sizes, these weights confirm to the standard Indus binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements.

These weights were in a faultless ratio of 4-2-1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1. 2. 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 units, with each unit weighting approximately 28 grams, similar to the English imperial ounce or Greek uncial whereas smaller objects were weighted in related ratios with the units of 0.871. Nevertheless, actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilias Arthushtra (4th century BC) are the same as those used in Indus cities.

Spoons (tippers and ladles) are also beautiful Indus creations which are made from shells probably used in special rituals for dispensing sacred liquids such as water or oil, or may indicate its use of service purpose and feeding small doses of medicines. Different types of miniature masks, such as a home deities, puppets and masks representing different animals might have been used for recreational purposes. Spherical rattles having different colors, hollow bird figurine used as a whistle. Curved ball gaming pieces plain and with many sets of double circles on each face of sphere.

A miniature bed or table with four legs and red painted design on the top has also been founded from Indus cities which is very resembled to the modern one, this type of furniture can also function as a throne.

Undoubtedly Sindhi people can claim the invention of said things above and below, more over they were the first among others in many industries, discoveries and concepts of the things like, marble (game), swimming pool, wheels, symbol system, art of inscription (script and pictures, impose and incised), wheel pottery, drainage system, stamping, ritual offering stands, conch, different sizes of balls (cricket, and valley ball sized also), very heavy balls supposed to be used in mortar or canon, grind stone (flour grinding machine made of hard stone), calligraphy, script writing, knitting machine, shell industry, tile industry, ivory industry, bronze industry, amulet system, spear throwing, bangle industry, sand stone quern and Muller, nodules and cake making, painted dishes, deep bowls, goblets, pedestal jar, cooking pots, art of drilling, barter system, currency units, geometric assets, cloth industry, fish hooks, agriculture, plough, sculpture, statue making, well digging , artificial water supply system etc.


  • Mehwish Kayani

    very well researched article indeed.
    Future can be made bright by analyzing the past.
    The point to ponder here is that the region which was a benchmark of best civilization around 5000 years ago have turned into a noman’s land now.
    its’ time to maintain the integrity of these inventions and inventors.
    start questioning!!!!

  • Rez

    Sorry, did not read the whole article, but would like to ask the OP to elaborate on term Inventions and how different it is from Discovery? and then tell us what would be more appropriate to be used in thread title?

  • Ahmad

    This article neither relates to IT sector nor relates to Telecom sector then why its here ?

    • Its about inventions, about Pakistan – that’s why it is here, but i respect the concern you have shown.

      • Ahmad

        Anyhow, its well researched.

      • omerfarooq

        Why not make separate website for these issues?
        It would be really very interesting, Just like there is separate for teens by Pro team.

  • Samz

    hamara identity crisis isi wajah se hai kah we are not going to own ’em

  • you have done a great job of putting things so clearly and letting us know about these details of our heritage. :)

  • Trinka Mayer

    yes………the article is nicely written by a nice man……….. I would like to share the memoirs with readers about writer of this article from my book.

    Unforgettable people in my life
    Asif Raza Morio
    A man I met but never really

    Trynka Mayer
    New York Times

    First time I met him couple of years ago in the suburbs of Islamabad when earth quake smacked the area. That time I was working there for Los Vegas Chronicle to explore the condition of region. On third morning of my visit while working on schedule job I bring into being a Stalin type young man having charming personality and exercised physique leading a group of seven people to deliver the bits and pieces from a donated van to queued victims watchfully. I supposed him any marshaled man therefore started my task to ask the question.
    ….”people are howling about performance of the state forces what do you say as regards this?” He exactingly stared me and tentatively watching his functioning team replied” I am amongst those crying people”……
    ……”are not you from state law enforcement….?”
    ……“No” …he replied in same way as if he doesn’t like my interference…..
    ……”So who you are and what are you working for?”….. I inquired….
    ……”none of your business”……….
    …….”sorry…. what did you say”…….I really didn’t believe any person from that country can dare to reply before white and lady journalists…..
    ……..”Find some one else for your rubbish stories baby…..I neither have time nor bound to answer you?”…… He boorishly replied and engaged him self with the team so I thought healthier to leave him but honestly I was on boiling point from inside with his discourteous conduct of that fellow………….and than…..dubiously all the day long I furiously planned to break his jaw with my punch if he meet me again….…..huh…. he called my work “rubbish stories”………nonsense…………..
    On the dark of same day around 10’o clocks while roaming in rummage around for something special to record, I found him sitting on a stone wedge writing something in light of his cellular phone. He single-handedly was sipping tea or coffee………..though I don’t like him but…. Ok but….. But I sit beside him on the slab….. he inconsiderately glanced me but not stop to note down ……..but asked…”want tea….” I don’t replied only stared him…. he filled two cups of tea for me and my camera man from a thermos set aside him………
    ..”Perhaps you don’t like Americans or white girls or may be me”….
    ..”I don’t like all around here…earth quake and it’s after affects”…
    ..”Than why you are treating me like that”…
    …”I am here to serve the people… you should have to do the same…..rather than to record bullshit”……
    …”But it’s my job………are you satisfied by the rehabilitation activities”…….
    ….”I do nothing….No … I even am not satisfied your work on torn human flashes and dead bodies…….would not is better for you to serve, nurse, bandage or manage the needy people”……
    …”Ok you are right but who are you and with what organization you are working for?”……my cameraman became ready….. ?
    ….”I employ for no body but for my soul and mental tranquility……say your boy to off his camera……sip the tea and do your job any where else”… saying indignantly he marched towards tent and I dare not to stop him……
    Although many times he came across me but with same frosty conduct and stringency in eyes……….
    I remained there twelve days additional and each day wanted to observe him a different man very steadfast and dedicated to his work…
    Following many years on assassination of Benazir Bhutto I went Pakistan for exposure the circumstance and repercussion……… during three days stay I completed my assignments but before getting back I went to visit Mohenjodaro, a 5ve thousand years old city of Indus valley civilization where I bought a book from the door shop of the site.
    Reaching to hotel I study the book and found it nicely written about Mohenjodaro….. But when I saw the image of the author on back side oh my God……he was same Stalin like person with whom I met in Islamabad during earth quake……his name was Asif Raza Morio…..according to forwarding notes written by many renowned persons “he was a writer of international fame and caliber”………Fortunately there was his address and cellular number in the book….
    Needless to say I found a corner about him in my heart not matter hard or soft……I connected his number from hotel line and when the ring went on my heart thumping became speedy……. until he pressed the on button and said “hello”……
    ….”Hello…..is Asif Raza Morio there?”
    …”Ya…who’s there”….? He asked.
    …..”I am correspondent of New York Times……got the number from your book”…….
    …..”Oh …….. Thanks for calling…”…..
    ……”actually I need some exclusive information about the murder and family of Benazir Bhutto for my assignment….…. is it possible for you to lend me few minutes”………
    ……”sure but unfortunately I am in Quetta very far from Larkana”……
    …….”When will you back”…….I hopelessly asked over…..
    …….”Surely after four days”………
    ….”But tomorrow I will have to depart from here”…….
    …..”I am sending the number of a person who can help you in this regard”……. He had same somber tone of voice which made me crazy…….
    …….”No…. No. Thanks…bye”…..I felt my self over-sentimental so cut the call…..
    Subsequent to one year of that telephonic talk I watched him for sixty seconds on National Geographic Channel in a documentary on “Golden Hoards of Bactria” an ancient archaeological site of Afghanistan ……he was not only anchor but I found the script written by him……..
    On 26.6.2009 I was flying in British airways for Heathrow …..being habitual of reading in aero plane because of my psychological worries about air travel I picked a good looking magazine from back sack of front seat……It was “Jewel Time” an international magazine……paper and printing was superb but much excellent in the mag was a picture of Stalin man Asif Raza Morio ……with an articles on “Treasures of Kremlin” written by him………… I also found his name as an editor of that magazine…………..I read his article and opened my laptop and searched him on Google……….wooooooo…woo….woo……Asif Raza Morio home…..Asif Raza Morio flickr……Asif Raza Morio facebook…..this… that…this… that…again… again…his works, books, websites, pictures, contacts, emails etc etc:……boooooo………..
    Till the plane landed I came to winding up that Asif Raza Morio is a well known historian, researcher, archaeologist, adventurer, biographer and much more…….he is writer of several books……. have been working for global organizations, newspapers and periodicals. With a gentle smile I closed my laptop for the reason that now it is not difficult to drop a line to talk or even meet with the person I thought most…………
    ………… thanks Mohenjodaro, jewel Time and Google too…

  • Sameena ahmed

    Interesting was the research but more interesting is the dispositional and personal information about Aif Raza Morio written by a foreign author.
    We pakistani national are over all blamed about our indecent social, religious and political moral. we should to follow the Character of Asif Raza Morio as a whole which is also praised by anknown white lady.
    Thanks Mr. Asif Raza Morio for all u did as Miss: Trinka Mayer Said in her book. we hope for all our nationals be like you.

  • kashif reman

    unbelievable……and amazing research……

  • พระเครื่อง

    It’s very good to check out websites with material and thanks for the share that you’ve given. Mostly, I’m quite stunned, but etc…

  • Gul Afshan

    Sindh is really imazing………..as above about Sindhees is imazing…………!!!

  • Munwar Abro

    Amazing is the Sindh at its History,
    Archaeology, Society and Culture.
    Wonderful Research of a Sindhi Youth
    Astounding are the inventions of Sindhi People
    Astonishing…remarkable…incredible…marvelous.

  • Wali Ram Walb

    Having seen Such research I feel myself young and energetic that Sindhi Youth are not sleeping towards their cultural Herittage and national responsibilities.