Pakistan and Genetically Modified Crops: Is the Risk Worth the Reward?

Last year, Punjab failed to meet its target by 2 million bales in the cotton production. Following that, the government is once again in negotiation with Monsanto, a company which develops genetically modified seeds, hoping to see a higher production in the province.

It is being said that the company is ready to sell its GM technology for a heavy sum which will then allow local seed producers to use the technology for their seeds. About 95 percent of Pakistan’s cotton crops use GM cotton with Bt toxins, which have built-in toxins against bollworms.

Are genetically modified crops and technology the answer to Pakistan’s crop production woes? We take a look at how Pakistan has used GM seeds and how much success (or failure) it has faced so far by adopting them.

History of Monsanto and Pakistan

Pakistan has been using Monsanto’s seeds since 2002. Back then, the company did not seek patent protection when it started selling seeds in Pakistan. Soon after, local seek makers started copying the company’s Bt technology.

Instead of giving Pakistan’s cotton production a boost, the use of those seeds resulted in a failure to meet expected cotton production targets as the seed producers used low quality seeds as toxin carriers.

Given this scenario, it is to be noted that Pakistani seed producers do not have to pass any regulatory control and it’s mostly done informally without any sort of supervision. Hence, even though Monsanto’s seeds could have brought some benefits, the agricultural sector ended up with continuously deteriorating production.

Low germination and low quality seeds have hurt cotton production during the most part of the past decade. Another issue is that bollworms have developed immunity to the Bt toxins, mostly because of the low-toxin expressing seeds. So not only was the production hut by low quality seeds, farmers now have to use regular pesticides to get rid of the bollworms.

Monsanto’s New Seeds

Monsanto aims to solve the current issues in Pakistan by using its second generation GM cotton seeds often referred to as Bollgard II (BG II) which produce two toxins against bollworms instead of one.

However, it is expected that bollworms will eventually develop resistance to both toxins and second generation technology will become useless as well within 8 to 10 years. However, they are a good solution for the time being.

BG II is also herbicide resistant allowing farmers to use certain herbicides without damaging the crop. This type of cotton is called RoundUp Ready Flex (RRF).

Monsanto has employed a smarter technique this time around as it has patented its seeds for BG-II and RRF up until 2021 and 2023. This prevents local seed companies from copying the second generation seeds unless they procure a license from Monsanto until the license expires.

Punjab Government & Monsanto Negotiations

Currently Punjab government and Monsanto are in negotiations regarding the BG II and RRf seeds. Monsanto is reluctant to offer seeds in Pakistan fearing that the government doesn’t have the necessary control to prevent local seed makers from violating the patents and copying Monsanto’s products.

The company has, however, put forward a solution. It wants a hefty sum to be paid as technology fee if the government wants the local seed makers to produce BG II and RRF seeds.

Government’s Lack of Understanding

It is being reported that the government is ready to pay the heavy sum without any knowledge of the consequences. There have been several reports of Monsanto’s seeds not performing as promised by the company all around the world. Secondly, Pakistan has already witnessed that unregulated seed makers have hurt the agricultural production more than what bollworms could have managed on their own.

The same is likely to be repeated again unless proper arrangements are made and quality standards are enforced in the seed market. For the time being the government runs the risk of paying a huge sum to Monsanto without asking for tangible deliverables and targets when it comes to crop production.

Government’s Lack of Vision

Another point to consider is that Monsanto’s patents are due to expire in 2021 and 2023 and it takes at least 2 to 3 years for the implementation of a new technology into the seeds. So even if the technology is bought today, it would be free for use, or patents would be near expiry by the time the seeds are ready.

Buying something that can be available for free after a little bit of waiting makes little economic sense, especially in Pakistan’s case. However, if the government chooses not to pay the technology fee and only get the seeds under license and enforces a seed quality standard, it could help the local agricultural production a lot in the future.

Even Pakistan’s own companies from Faisalabad and Lahore have developed similar second generation seeds but they have been ignored by the government and everyone else. Of course, those seeds might possibly be just copies of the Monsanto ones, but still promoting local research is never a bad idea.

Another aspect is that instead of focusing on the improvement of NARC (National Agricultural Research Centre) the government has been cutting its funds, work force and even the land it owns. Recently, it was reported that the land owned by NARC was being taken over by a housing society.

Pakistan’s agricultural institutes and NARC have had a massively positive effect in the past and if the government really wants to promote agriculture in the country, local institutes need to be empowered and funded to solve local problems. Spending money on foreign companies is only a temporary solution.

Monsanto’s Seeds and Their Effects

Since Monsanto’s seeds produce toxins, they are known to kill bee populations. These are the very bees which pollinate all plants everywhere in the world and produce honey. GM seeds are hazardous to bees and widescale use of Monsanto’s seeds could mean a drastic danger to the environment and honey production in a country.

RRF is also linked with having a negative effect on the non-GM plants. It has been reported that RRF based crops kill all other crops, insects and animals. Such plants are banned in Europe but are still allowed in the company’s home market, America.

While cotton is a cash crop, Monsanto also produces food crop seeds. All of these are said to be produced using dead pigs, cows, spiders and some viruses.

A simple google search of the word “Monsanto” will show you at least 5 results explaining the dangers of using the company’s seeds and how it has grown so big during the past century.

Final Words

The government has at least two tasks at hand which need to be implemented as soon as possible. Instead of paying for the Monsanto seeds, the government should be leasing their seeds until the expiration of the patents.

It would need to ensured that unlicensed companies do not copy the BG II and RRF seeds. And if the Monsanto and Punjab government negotiations fail, there’s the option of going for locally available alternatives.

Of course, the real issue aren’t Monsanto and the government’s financial affairs. The real task would be to prevent other crop production in the same areas as GM crops from Monsanto and cordoning off the area in such a manner that the natural pollination patterns through bees is not affected. This can also be done by only using GM seeds in areas where food crops are not produced and there is less plantation around.

Read More: Pakistan is Missing Out on a Huge Opportunity by Not Using Tech in Agriculture

There’s also the matter of long term vision which needs to be taken into consideration soon. Pakistan’s local research needs to be promoted and funded. Being an agricultural country, the major research focus should have been agriculture-related but that is not the case these days.

Seed quality standards and proper legislature on genetically modified seeds also needs to be introduced by the government. If the situation really does get out of hand, these genetic seeds could end up killing all organic plantation around them.

As far as Monsanto is concerned, perhaps the government needs to put some specialists to do some research on why the company is called the “most evil company on earth” in America and why GM seeds have been protested against for decades now.

He is the Editor at ProPakistani.


  • Waqas

    If anything ANYTHING is hazardous to bees. That is 500% hazardous to humans. REMEMBER IT

    Monsanto get out of Pakistan. BTW these companies are not welcomed in far east countries. There are reasons.

  • Zamana Bohat Kharab Hota Ja Raha Hai :
    Theek Usi Tarha Seeds Bhi

    • Bitter_truth

      ap byhad farigh hain ya tou paid commenter hain propaki k

      • Na Main Farig Ho Na He Main Paid Commenter Ho :

        I am Enjoying Baby !

        • Raja G

          american sunde ki tera enjoying on cotton flowers :)

  • Yasir Mahmood

    Well we are already having meat(Specially chicken) which are upraised and fed with haraam and hazardous items.

    • ft

      yar khuda ka khouf karo q suni sunae afwaehin phailaty.. aik he sasta source bacha dietry proteins ka wo bhi afwahein phaila k aam admi ki puhnch se dor kar do

      • Yasir Mahmood

        HaHa
        Bhai jo dill karre khao,

  • Moonbaby

    Monsanto is still active? ? I thought they had been forced to close down.

  • unforeseeably well written post on propk. good work

  • Nothanks

    Please, I implore the author to take another look into GMOs, especially one man who saved Pakistan, Mohsin e Pakistan, Norman Borlaug.

    >Borlaug led the introduction of high-yielding wheat varieties combined with modern agricultural production techniques to Mexico, Pakistan, and India. In Pakistan, wheat yields increased from 4.6 million tons in 1965 to 7.3 million tons in 1970; Pakistan was self-sufficient in wheat production by 1968. Yields were over 21 million tons by 2000. Since the 1960s, food production in Pakistan has increased at incredibly faster rates than the rate of population growth and the production of wheat reach to 25 million tons mark.

    http://www.parc.gov.pk/index.php/en/role-of-borlaug

    • SAAD UR REHMAN

      Maybe you are confused between genetically modifies seeds and hybrid seeds.
      GMO seeds are produced in labs, while those Hybrid ones, that you are referring to in your comment are produced naturally by employing plantation techniques.
      Goto his wiki: wikipedia[dot]org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug
      and read the content under heading: Wheat research in Mexico
      “He spent the first ten years breeding wheat cultivars resistant to disease, including rust. In that time, his group made 6,000 individual crossings of wheat”

      • Nothanks

        Hybrid seeds is genetic modification…. From your own link, it says

        >Borlaug believed that genetically modified organisms (GMO) was the only way to increase food production as the world runs out of unused arable land. GMOs were not inherently dangerous “because we’ve been genetically modifying plants and animals for a long time. Long before we called it science, people were selecting the best breeds.

        And it seems you are falling pray to the naturalistic fallacy. Just because something is natural, it doesn’t mean its good (like poisonous plants) and just because something is made in a lab, it doesn’t mean its bad (like life saving drugs or vitamin A enriched rice).

        >http://www.agbioworld.org/biotech-info/topics/borlaug/doomsayers.html

        >Nobel Prize laureate, Dr Norman E. Borlaug, has defended the utilisation of Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs to boost food production in the world.

        • Patriot

          Please do not mis-state facts. Agbio is finance by tobacco industry so please No thanks stop misleading the world. Everyone, Just google “Competitive Ebnterprise Institute” which secures funding for Agbioworld and you will find out the reality.
          Nothanks people like you should be jailed and hanged for misleading the ionnocent people of Pakistan with malicious intent — and calling criminals like Dr, Norman “Moshin-e-Pakistan”
          Shame on you, Mir Jaffar!

    • Patriot

      Please stop calling all idiots “Mohsin-e-Pakistan” just like every moron even falling from a ladies compartment to his death trying to tease girls become a shaheed in our country.
      Have mercy on us, and tell the truth about GMO crops being a tool to destroy third world agriculture and let the rich developed countries beg even for the food that we can produce for very little money from the seeds that they patent . . . At least be honest Nothanks.
      My advice to you about GMOs Thanks, BUT NOTHANKS

  • Pyro

    Using Seeds from Monsanto/GMO will make Entire Pakistani Agriculture to rely only on these Seeds because where ever you Plant these Genetically Modified Seeds in Lands you will not be able to use Natural Organic Seeds after words if you plan to switch to Organic seeds, they will immediately Die.
    Monsanto/GMO are facing huge Backlash from Farmers in Europe and USA.

  • Zelda

    Learn from INDIA idiots , they have Ban GMO because thousands of former’s commit suicides … and recently they BAN Gates Foundation which they did amazing job ,, and here we go our Idiot government legalize GMO crops and also send Army on homes to vaccinate kids …………… Learn Mother figures before its too late !!!

  • Cool boy

    Dear writer,
    Do you have knowledge that Pakistan farmers are sowing Monsanto Bt cotton in Pakistan since 2006 which was illegally introduced in Pakistan. Now if the farmers wants advance technologies, what really making you write such a biased article. All we know you write it as you are paid for it. Do not distract the farmers prosperity and future from such filthy and biased article.

    • Patriot

      Actually you are the filthy traitor who endorses illegal sowing of dangerous crops to make little extra money in the name of “advanced technology”, and destroying the whole eco-system of agriculture in the country you lout! not ProPakistani, which has done a wonderful job with this article. I wish Aamir that Pro-Pakistani does an in-depth investigative report on this most critical issue for our country whose 60% population is dependent on agriculture!
      Good job done to ProPakistani and just get your head out of your backside Cool Boy, its frozen in there that’s why your brain is not working with stupid comments like that!

    • Aadil

      If you had cared to read the article, it says Bt seeds have been used since 2002 and have already caused a lot of issues to local production.
      Farmers can only get the seeds available in the market, they are not told that in reality these seeds will end up killing their other crops and natural pollination.

  • Hasnu

    Every soil on Earth as well as the climate is different so no matter whatever advanced seed or latest BG-II seed they import is probably not gonna work here. What we need is an investment on local and accountable agricultural research which could make huge differences in production.

  • Patriot

    Monsanto is a criminal organization, and all you need to do is search youtube, which is full of documentaries about its criminal, unethical and inhuman behavior — its seeds and food produced from them is not even eaten by its own scientists and staff.
    Food grown using its seeds makes cancer grow in days and kills the animals on which it was tested (rats and rabbits).
    Our bikee hoowee government will import even the water for their dogs from Evian, and food from NewZealand, baqee humay marnay kayliayey in razeelon nay Monsanto jaisee shaytanee companion kay hawalay kurdiya hai!
    Not only that, but Monsanto’s seeds pollute the seeds and crops of every surrounding field next to which they are planted — so they completely destroy an entire nation’s agriculture and entire countries become beggars of this evil company.
    I urge all readers to please research this terrible company on net and spread the word, because our children could be begging Hugh Grant for every grain of wheat and rice.
    Please, please, everyone just search Monsanto’s documentary “Seeds of Death” on youtube.

  • hafiz talha

    illuminati wants to control agriculture through these seeds
    on the other hand these seeds are cancerous to human health
    honey bees are dying
    why would not human
    just they are making us fools in the name of more production