The cumulative education expenditures by federal and provincial governments in the fiscal year 2020-21 declined to 1.77 percent of GDP as compared to 1.9 percent during the fiscal year 2019-20, reveals the Economic Survey 2021-22.
Expenditures on education-related expenditures during the fiscal year 2021 witnessed an increase of 9.7 percent, reaching Rs. 988 billion from Rs. 901 billion.
During 2021-22, PSLM Survey was not conducted due to the upcoming Population and Housing Census 2022. Therefore, the figures for the latest available survey regarding GER and NER may be considered for the analysis.
However, according to Labour Force Survey 2020-21, literacy rate trends show an increase of 0.4 percent with 62.8 percent in 2020-21 as compared to 62.4 percent in 2018-19. The literacy rate in males surged from 73.0 percent to 73.4 percent, whereas the female literacy rate increased from 51.5 percent to 51.9 percent. Area-wise analysis suggests literacy rate increase in both rural (53.7 percent to 54.0 percent) and urban (76.1 percent to 77.3 percent).
The male-female literacy rate disparity seems to be narrowing down with time. Furthermore, the literacy rate has gone up in all provinces, increasing from 66.1 percent to 66.3 percent in Punjab, 61.6 percent to 61.8 percent in Sindh, surging from 52.4 percent to 55.1 percent in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 53.9 percent to 54.5 percent in Balochistan.
The total number of enrolments during 2019-20 was recorded at 55.7 million as compared to 53.1 million during 2018-19, which shows an increase of 4.9 percent. This number is estimated to increase to 58.5 million during 2020-21. The number of institutions was recorded at 277.5 thousand during 2019-20 as compared to 271.8 thousand during 2018-19. However, the number of institutions is estimated to increase to 283.7 thousand in 2020-21. Similarly, there were 1.83 million teachers in 2019-20 as compared to 1.79 million last year. The number of teachers is estimated to increase to 1.89 million during 2020-21.
The survey noted that an amount of Rs. 9.7 billion was allocated in PSDP FY2022 for 24 ongoing and four new development projects of the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training. While an amount of Rs. 2.8 billion was also allocated for six ongoing and three new education-related development projects sponsored by Finance, Defence, Housing & Works, and Kashmir Affairs & Gilgit Baltistan Divisions.
During the fiscal year 2022, an amount of Rs. 54.3 billion was allocated by the Government of Punjab for 110 ongoing and 405 new development projects in the education sector. Out of which, Rs. 35.5 billion was allocated for school education, Rs. 15.1 billion for higher education, Rs. 0.8 billion for special education, and Rs. 2.9 billion for literacy and non-formal education.
During FY2022, the Sindh government dedicated Rs. 30.3 billion for 225 ongoing and 283 new development projects in the education sector. Out of which, an amount of Rs. 18.3 billion was allocated for school education, Rs. 4.0 billion for college education, Rs. 0.8 billion for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, Rs. 1.2 billion for Sindh TEVTA, and Rs. 6.0 billion for Universities & Boards.
The government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has allocated Rs. 24.6 billion in the fiscal year 2022 for 172 ongoing and 39 new development projects. Out of which, an amount of Rs. 4.3 billion was allocated for primary education, Rs. 12.1 billion for secondary education, Rs. 1.2 billion for elementary & secondary education, and Rs. 7.0 billion for higher education. This amount is 94 percent higher than the last year’s allocation.
The Balochistan government allocated Rs. 31.4 billion for the fiscal year 2022 for 510 ongoing and 380 new development projects. Out of the total allocation, an amount of Rs. 2.3 billion was allocated for primary education, Rs. 1.9 billion for middle education, Rs. 8.6 billion for secondary education, Rs. 8.5 billion for college education, Rs. 9.5 billion for university education, Rs. 0.2 billion for general education and 0.4 billion for technical education.